Application in Fire Research Unit 4 Literature Review
At this point in the course, you have narrowed the topic that you would like to research, learned the importance of critically evaluating the literature, and identified a research design approach that would yield valid and reliable data in your proposed study.
In Unit III, you conducted a brief annotated bibliography. For this assignment, you will perform a written literature review—a critical examination of the literature involving your research topic and the specific research question or hypothesis that you have identified.
Remember that a literature review revolves around themes or issues and is not merely a restatement of your annotated bibliography or a book report on what the authors you reviewed already presented. You will want to discuss the emerging topics and subtopics that exist based on your topic. Refer back to Chapter 3 in your textbook to review this information.
Using the CSU Online Library and other scholarly source locations, find at least five sources, and write a literature review that (1) discusses your topic’s information and (2) justifies general research (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) approach that you could utilize in your study. You may use sources from your annotated bibliography.
Please view this tutorial on researching fire science topics for help with this assignment.
Try to answer some of the following questions in your literature review.
Begin your literature review with a strong introduction that includes a discussion about the differences between qualitative and quantitative research methods and which approach you have chosen to follow for your research. Ensure that you evaluate each source thoroughly in your literature review, and provide their finding’s significance. Your literature review must be at least three pages in length.
Adhere to APA Style when constructing this assignment including in-text citations and references for all sources that are used. Please note that no abstract is needed.
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There are common research approaches that are distinct based on the aim and the type of study. These include qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-method research designs. Two of these are compared to find the best for this study in this review.
All the approaches have various distinct characteristics; in the quantitative research approach, data collection is structurally approached. The research questions and objectives are predetermined by the researcher prior to the actual field data collection process.
In this type of research, all process aspects are rigid. The results under this approach are often based on large sample sizes, and the study can be replicated or redone. It is key in generating theories and models since it involves sample measurements and experiments to quantify variations.
Of all the types of research, quantitative is the most appropriate approach when the determination of an extent or magnitude of a particular problem or issue is involved (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004)
On the other hand, the qualitative approach involves a description of the situation solely. There is some flexibility in the aspects of the processes involved in this type. The data collection approach is unstructured, and it predominantly deals with the nature of the problem majoring on the variations and the diversity in a given phenomenon (Apuke, 2017).
The data collected in this approach are measured in nominal or ordinal scales, and analysis is done to obtain variations. It is, therefore, the best approach when the required research answer involves the opinion of people or a description of the observed situation. (Silverman, 2020)
Consequently, these research methods have differences. In the quantitative method, the approach to inquiry is Structured, rigid, and predetermined methodology, while in the qualitative approach, the methodology is open, flexible, and unstructured.
Another outstanding difference is the purpose of the investigation. Quantitative research seeks to quantify the extent of variation in a situation, whereas the qualitative approach is aimed to describe the variation in a phenomenon.
Analysis of data also shows a remarkable difference between the two research approaches. In quantitative methods, the data collected is subjected to various statistical procedures such as cross-tabulations and frequency distribution to analyze the data collected.
On the other hand, in the qualitative method, the narratives and the observation are subjected to qualitative measurement scales. (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2015).
In the research for the best location to erect a new fire station and acquire new equipment, I would recommend the use of qualitative research approach this is because of all the three approaches it is the best method that will give the opinions of the members of the public and even the organization itself.
Moreover, the qualitative method clarifies the description of the situation, which is key in the location of any given firm.
The increase in fire incidences in the recent past has led to many firefighting departments raising eyebrows. According to Rush and associates found out that there are more than 150,000 recorded depths, with up to 95% of this number being experienced in the lower and middle-class nations (Rush et al. 2020).
Incidences of fire risks in towns and cities have become a political issue in most parts of the world. In tackling these residential fires, there is a recommendation of the houses being accessible more so to the firefighting teams (Ibid).
In research done in the state of Pennsylvania in 2016, the results showed that the issue of fire out brakes had been deemed a significant threat to society today (Marschall et al. 2016).
In their study, they found out that the incidences of fire were positively skewed. The increasing fire accidents trigger the economy to erect strategic fire stations, especially in areas that experience higher risks of fire out brakes.
According to the National Fire Incident Reporting System statistics, the USA alone collected an approximate number of fire incidences data in a year across the 50 states in America to be 600,000.
This includes up to 40 areas occupied by major metropolitan cities (Manes and Rush, 2019). These alarming figures will increase due to the current increase in urbanization as well as the booming population growth.
One of the causative agents of fire out brakes, especially forest fires, is human activities. According to Gupta and his associates in a study done in the Western Himalayan landscape during the pandemic, revealed that the movement of individuals, as well as the vehicle activities, results to a great degree to the incidences of forest fires which, to a given degree, the cause even in the residential zones of the major towns in the country (Gupta et al. 2020).
This clearly shows that the increase of anthropogenic activities increasing with the state of the population is an indicator to increase the number of firefighting stations and equipment.
Within any area of situating a station to serve effectively, the service area must be accessible from the station. The infrastructural connectivity between the two places must be efficient, especially in terms of the road network (Şen et al., 2011).
Gears are a factor in the firefighting department, and the type of equipment acquired will determine the efficiency of dealing with the emergency in case of a fire accident. According to McQuerry and associates, the kind of suits selected for the fighters should be that which can relieve fire stress (McQuerry et al., 2018).
In a study done in Kathmandu Metropolitan City, considerations were made in selecting a suitable site to set a fire station location. These criteria included the coverage of land, the population in the area, and the proximity of the site to the main roads leading into the city.
These kinds of zonation proved to be the best when considering a new station of fire firefighters within the town of consideration (Chaudhary et al., 2016).
Another concern in the fire fighting sector is the equipment to be used during fire accidents. In a study to find out the influence of firefighting and the effect this activity has on the body done by Rossi, the findings showed that in every act of fighting the fire the fighters are exposed to burns and heat stress thermal hazards (Rossi 2003)
Among the crucial factors for fire rescue, is the proximity of the station to the best route leading to fire outbreak expectation area. The traveling time should be considered while starting a station and the possibility of traffic on the streets leading forth from the station.
A study using GIS technology proved that the shorter route is a good strategy for considering site selection for a station in a city (Ramli., Yanmar., & Pasra., 2019).
Chaudhary, P., Chhetri, S. K., Joshi, K. M., Shrestha, B. M., & Kayastha, P. (2016). Application of an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in the GIS interface for suitable fire site selection: A case study from Kathmandu Metropolitan City, Nepal. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 53, 60-71.
Gupta, A., Bhatt, C. M., Roy, A., & Chauhan, P. (2020). COVID-19 lockdown a window of opportunity to understand the role of human activity on forest fire incidences in the Western Himalaya, India. Curr Sci, 119(2), 390-398
Rush, D., Bankoff, G., Cooper-Knock, S. J., Gibson, L., Hirst, L., Jordan, S., … & Walls, R. S. (2020). Fire risk reduction on the margins of an urbanizing world. Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal.
Ramli, M. I., Yatmar, H., & Pasra, M. (2019, February). An optimum route analysis of
fire rescue according to fire station location (Case study: Residence area in
Makassar’s central business district). In IOP Conference Series:
Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 235, No. 1, p. 012072). IOP Publishing.
Rossi, R. (2003). Firefighting and its influence on the body. Ergonomics, 46(10), 1017-1033.
Şen, A., Önden, İ., Gökgöz, T., & Şen, C. (2011). A GIS approach to fire station
location selection. GeoInformation for disaster management.
Marschall, J. M., Stambaugh, M. C., Jones, B. C., Guyette, R. P., Brose, P. H., & Dey, D. C. (2016). Fire regimes of remnant pitch pine communities in the Ridge and Valley region of central Pennsylvania, USA. Forests, 7(10), 224.
Manes, M., & Rush, D. (2019). A critical evaluation of BS PD 7974-7 structural fire response data based on USA fire statistics. Fire technology, 55(4), 1243-1293.
McQuerry, M., Barker, R., & DenHartog, E. (2018). Relationship between novel
design modifications and heat stress relief in structural firefighters’
protective clothing. Applied ergonomics, 70, 260-268.
Apuke, O. D. (2017). Quantitative research methods: A synopsis approach. Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 33(5471), 1-8.
Johnson, R. B., & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational researcher, 33(7), 14-26.
McCusker, K., & Gunaydin, S. (2015). Research using qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods and choice based on the research. Perfusion, 30(7), 537-542.
Silverman, D. (Ed.). (2020). Qualitative research. Sage Publications Limited.
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